Corylus avellana L
Additional information for Sacajawea Filbert
The nuts of Sacajawea are borne in clusters of two to three in husks equal in length to the nuts. The husks are slit down the side and about 97% of the nuts fall free at maturity. The nuts are ready to be mechanically harvested 10 to 14 d before 'Barcelona', or approximately the third week in September in Corvallis, OR. The earlier maturity is a significant improvement, because in most years, harvest of Sacajawea will be completed before the start of the rainy season, which coincides with the beginning of the Barcelona harvest.
Sacajawea is being released for the kernel market, although it may also be acceptable for the in-shell market. The nuts and kernels are smaller than 'Barcelona' but larger than Clark and slightly larger than Lewis. Chocolate makers prefer kernels 11 to 13 mm in diameter; kernels of Clark and Tonda Gentile delle Lange are of this size. Sacajawea kernels are larger, similar to Tonda di Giffoni and Tonda Romana. Raw kernels are attractive and have a light brown pellicle with a small amount of attached fiber. More than half of the pellicle is removed from the kernels with dry heat in the blanching process, yielding kernels that are bright white. Blanching ratings have averaged two to three, which is better than Barcelona and Lewis and similar to Clark. Kernel texture, flavor, and appearance are worthy of a premium price.
Sacajawea produces fewer nut and kernel defects than Barcelona, particularly fewer poorly filled nuts and blanks(shells lacking kernels). The frequency of moldy kernels is low and similar to Barcelona. Kernel mold was a problem in 2005 in Lewis but was minimal in Sacajawea.
Incompatibility in the diploid European hazelnut is of the sporophytic type and controlled by a single S-locus with multiple alleles (Mehlenbacher, 1997a). Sacajawea has incompatibility alleles S1 and S22 as determined by fluorescence microscopy (Mehlenbacher, 1997b). Both alleles are expressed in the females but only S1 is expressed in the pollen because of dominance. The paternal parent Sant Pere has alleles S22 and S26. The maternal parent OSU 43.091 (S1 S1) is listed as from a cross of Montebello (S1 S2) and the grower selection Compton (S2 S3). OSU 43.091 (S1 S1) closely resembles Montebello, but neither S-allele of Compton is present. The alleles of OSU 43.091 are consistent with what would be expected from self-pollination of Montebello, which is partially self-compatible (Mehlenbacher and Smith, 1991). Alternatively, the pollen parent of OSU 43.091 might be an unknown cultivar or OSU selection.
Sacajawea trees have a moderate set of catkins that shed copious amounts of pollen early in the season with 'Barcelona'. Pollen has been collected and used in several controlled pollinations, and both quantity and viability appear to be very good. Female inflorescences of Sacajawea emerge early in the season, approximately with 'Barcelona'. Pollenizers that shed pollen early or in midseason would be suitable. We encourage the planting of three pollenizers that shed pollen at different times during the period that female inflorescences are receptive to increase the likelihood that they will be pollinated. Lewis (S3 S8) and Sacajawea (S1 S22) are cross-compatible in both directions and could serve as pollenizers for each other. Gamma (S2 S10) and Hall's Giant (S5 S15) are also suitable pollenizers. These four (Sacajawea, Lewis, Gamma, and Hall's Giant) are cross-compatible in all combinations. Pollen of Barcelona (S1 S2) and Delta (S1 S15) expresses S1 and is thus incompatible on female inflorescences of Sacajawea.
Two tests have shown Sacajawea to have a high level of quantitative resistance to eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by the pyrenomycete Anisogramma anomala. A set of potted trees was grown in a lathhouse in 2000 and placed under a structure topped with diseased wood in the spring of 2001 as described by Pinkerton (1993). A second set was exposed in 2002. Cankers were counted and measured about 20 months after exposure to EFB and the amount of disease expressed as total canker length per tree. A square root transformation was used to make the variances more similar. Control cultivars were included: Daviana (highly susceptible), Barcelona (intermediate), Lewis or Hall's Giant (moderately resistant), and Tonda di Giffoni (highly resistant). Both tests showed that 'Sacajawea' has a level of quantitative resistance comparable to Tonda di Giffoni.Sacajawea does not have the complete resistance of Santiam (OSU 509.064) and is not recommended for areas with high disease pressure. Pruning to remove cankers and fungicide applications are currently used to manage the disease in orchards of Barcelona and other susceptible cultivars and are appropriate for Sacajawea orchards.
Susceptibility to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. corylina has not been determined, although no trees have been lost to the disease in our trial plots.
Susceptibility to big bud mite (primarily Phytoptus avellanae Nal.) was rated in the replicated trial in Dec. 2002, 2003, and 2005. The scale was from 1 (no blasted buds) to 5 (many blasted buds). The average ratings indicate a high level of resistance for Sacajawea (1.1) and Barcelona (1.0), moderate resistance for Lewis (2.3), and an intermediate response for Clark (3.0). Blasted buds are very rare on Sacajawea, so chemical applications should not be necessary to control bud mite.
Some Oregon handlers offer premiums for early delivery and high kernel percentage. Sacajawea would qualify for both premiums. Handlers may choose to offer additional incentives because of the excellent kernel quality of Sacajawea. Three Italian cultivars command a premium price on the world kernel market because of their kernel quality, and a single tree of each was included in the trial. Tonda Gentile delle Langhe from Piemonte in northern Italy commands a 50% premium but is highly susceptible to bud mites and EFB, and nut yields are low. Tonda Romana from Lazio in central Italy commands a 25% premium. Its nuts are similar to small 'Barcelona' nuts and yield efficiency is similar, but kernels blanch poorly and trees are highly susceptible to EFB. Tonda di Giffoni from Campania in southern Italy commands a 25% premium. Its trees yield well and have very good quantitative resistance to EFB, but kernel mold is a very serious problem. In 2005, 41% of the kernels of Tonda di Giffoni were moldy in contrast to only 3.3% for Sacajawea. Sacajawea has kernel quality that merits a premium price but lacks the deficiencies of these three standard Italian cultivars.
Sacajawea information from a technical paper of the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station.
|Heat Tolerance||Very Good|
|Sun Tolerance||Very Good|
|Wet Soil Tolerance||Poor|
|Fresh for Kids||Excellent|
|This information is accurate to the best of our knowledge, comments/opinions are always welcome|